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Salvatore Ferragamo : Feet First 雙腳優先

蘇西曼奇斯探訪Salvatore Ferragamo如何融合藝術與科學
Suzy Menkes looks at how art and science fell into step for Salvatore Ferragamo.

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兩隻鍍金青銅材質的腳 – 一隻來自古羅馬,另一則是馬提斯(Henri Matisse)的作品 – 和旁邊擦地板的墊子、芭蕾舞者的腳背、小孩子踏出第一步驟的小腳丫排列展出。

日前在佛羅倫斯Salvatore Ferragamo博物館的一場精彩的《平衡狀態》展覽,讓我快速學習了人體足部與其功能的一堂課。

Artwork depicting balance on display at the Equilibrium exhibition at the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum

Two gilded bronze feet – one from ancient Rome, the other by Henri Matisse – vie for attention with monkey pads, a ballerina’s arched instep and the tiny toes of a toddler taking his first steps.

I took a crash course about the human foot and its function at Equilibrium, a fascinating exhibition at the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum in Florence.

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圖說:左,  鍍金的青銅足部雕像為勝利女神尼刻(Nike)的腳(西元前二世紀),來自奧古斯都廣場

照片出處:Courtesy of Archivio del Museo dei Fori Imperiali.

照片出處:Stefano Castellani

右:馬提斯作品《Etude de pied》 (約 1909)
照片出處:© Succession H. Matisse c/o Pictoright Amsterdam 2010

由於日前我在卡布里島出席Dolce & Gabbana高級訂製服裝發表會時,穿楔型鞋時不慎拐到,腳上綁著繃帶、腳部腫起,我對腳和腳的功能這些議題還真特別敏感。

不過倒是不用從懸崖跌下去,才能好好欣賞這博學又有趣的展覽。看見我們的祖先,這些毛茸茸的靈長類動物在360萬年前在非洲留下的腳印,讓我笑了起來。

Caption Left:  Right foot in gilt bronze belonging to a Nike  (2nd Century BC), from the Forum of Augustus

Credit Courtesy of Archivio del Museo dei Fori Imperiali. Photo credit: Stefano Castellani

Right: Henri Matisse, Etude de pied (c 1909)
Credit © Succession H. Matisse c/o Pictoright Amsterdam 2010

Given that I was hobbling with a bandaged and bloated instep after taking a tumble off my wedges in Capri at the Dolce & Gabbana couture show, I was particularly sensitive to the foot and its function.

But you don’t have to fall down a cliff to appreciate this erudite but edgy exhibition. I laughed at the sight of our predecessors, the primates, as hairy models plodding along in footprints found in Africa 3.6 million years ago.

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圖說:兒童的Derby鞋,義大利文為Primi passi,意思是「最初的步伐」,是以褐色小牛皮和專利的防滑鞋底製成,是Salvatore Ferragamo於1946年為他的長子Ferruccio Ferragamo所製作

照片出處:Arrigo Coppitz

當我看見一雙小牛皮材質,搭配防滑鞋底的小小鞋子,是製鞋師傅Salvatore Ferragamo 在1946年為他的兒子,也就是家族企業現任總裁Ferruccio所製作的鞋,讓我忍不住感動地鼻酸。

看見許多人像如雜技般在空曠的空間盪來盪去,像是Alexander Calder的裝置藝術作品與他創作中從馬戲團攝取的靈感,讓我開心了起來。但是這部知名電影的聲音和影像卻也讓我發抖了一下:約翰‧甘迺迪的堅定的步伐、甘地徒步的宗教之旅,還有希特勒軍隊正步向前邁進。

Caption The children’s Derby shoe, called Primi passi, which means ‘first steps’ in Italian, was created in light brown calfskin with a patented non-slip sole by Salvatore Ferragamo in 1946 for his eldest son Ferruccio Ferragamo

Credit Photo credit: Arrigo Coppitz

I had a prick in my eyes when I saw the tiny calfskin shoes with non-slip soles which shoemaker Salvatore Ferragamo created in 1946 for his son Ferruccio, now president of the family business.

I also felt a lift of delight at figures swinging acrobatically in an empty space, like Alexander Calder’s mobiles and his circus inspirations. But I shivered at the sight and sound of the famous on film: the purposeful stride of John F Kennedy, the religious march of Mahatma Gandhi, and Adolf Hitler’s military goose-stepping.

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圖說:詹姆斯‧迪恩向凱薩琳‧鄧翰(Katherine Dunham)學舞蹈,紐約1955年

照片出處:© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos

更精彩的是,博物館的館長與史料館理者Stefania Ricci與藝術評論家Sergio Risaliti,也就是《Equilibrium》展覽的共同策展者,從世界各地收集了相當驚人的藝術品與文獻,更值得肯定。兩人參考的史料包括從佛羅倫斯中央圖書館出借的但丁之《神曲》的圖片到巴黎奧賽美術館的竇加(Edgar Degas)的雕塑品。

Caption James Dean at a dance class with Katherine Dunham, New York, 1955

Credit © Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos

Most of all, Stefania Ricci, the museum’s director and archivist, and art critic Sergio Risaliti, Equilibrium’s co-curators, should be applauded for the impressive art objects and references that they have brought together from museums around the world. They extend from an illustration of the journey from Dante’s The Divine Comedy, loaned from Florence’s Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, to Edgar Degas sculptures from the Musée d’Orsay in Paris.

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圖說:竇加(Edgar Degas),青銅雕塑

照片出處:© RMN-Grand Palais (奧賽美術館Musée d’Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski

特別醒目的是有關舞蹈的主題,展出竇加(Degas)作品中赤足的舞者,或十五世紀時期、拉斐爾風格的鋼筆畫,展現出優雅的雙足。

但是鞋子的靈魂和鞋底的精神所在,當然就是Salavatore本人。

Caption Edgar Degas, bronze statue.

Credit © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d’Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski

Especially poignant is the section on dance, where the delicacy of bare-footed Degas dancers or a fifteenth-century Raphael-style pen-and-ink drawing show us feet in a state of grace.

But the soul and the sole of shoes is, of course, Salavatore himself.

polimoda圖說:Salvatore Ferragamo與妻子在1930年代末期,新婚時期合影

「他這一生都在研讀與學習人體的構造,想要更了解足部的科學,」 Stefania Ricci一邊為我介紹這位設計師所設計的不同鞋楦,一邊說明他如何以科學的方式研究腳弓的弧度。

Caption Salvatore Ferragamo and his wife Wanda around the time of their wedding in the late Thirties

“He spent his life studying and learning about the human anatomy to improve his understanding of feet,” explained Stefania Ricci, as she showed me the different lasts the designer had worked on to further his scientific study of the arch of the foot.

polimoda圖說:開發出十一英吋高跟鞋的鞋楦,2014年

照片出處: Arrigo Coppitz

Caption Development of a last in 11 heel heights, 2014

Credit Photo credit: Arrigo Coppitz
polimoda圖說:申請專利:左:Toe 鞋,鞋底的斜面縫邊縫貼於鞋面的側邊,強化腳尖的部位。

右: 鞋底的腳弓強化系統。在多年研究下,Ferragamo發明了革命性的鋼鐵鞋骨,可以支撐住足底弓,讓腳可以像反轉的鐘錘一樣移動。他在1929年申請專利的鞋骨,是他相當重要的發明之一,至今仍使用於他的鞋款內。
照片出處:羅馬,中央政府史料館

身邊環繞著文藝復興時期建築物(主體的拱門承受建築物的重量)的這位義大利人,對於物體的結構有一種直覺式的理解,他也將這理念運用於鞋款的設計上。

包括瑪麗蓮夢露等多位好萊塢明星,可能從Salvatore研究成果中感受到效果。但是這易變的平衡感,特別是不同高度的高跟鞋的平衡感,都是從科學出發,延伸至藝術的型態。

Caption: patent applications: left,Toe shoe with sole featuring a tapered edge glued to the sides of the upper and reinforcing the toe.

Right, Arch reinforcement system for shoe soles. As a result of his research, Ferragamo invented the revolutionary steel shank, which supported the plantar arch, enabling the foot to move like an inverted pendulum. The shank, which he patented in 1929, was one of his most important inventions and is still used in the brand’s shoes.
Credit Rome, Central Government Archives.

With the intuitive understanding of an Italian who is surrounded by Renaissance architecture (where the premium arch takes the building’s weight), Ferragamo brought the same principle to shoes.

Marilyn Monroe, among other Hollywood stars, may have felt the benefit of Salvatore’s studies. But the volatile balance, especially in heels of different heights, was developed from scientific understanding into an art form.

polimoda圖說:左, 依據Salvatore Ferregamo為瑪麗蓮夢露所創作的亮漆高跟鞋而設計的鞋款。

右:Salvatore Ferragamo為瑪麗蓮夢露製作的鞋楦,從上面的痕跡可以看出,此品牌為這位好萊塢巨星製作了多款的鞋。
照片出處:Arrigo Coppitz

這位「明星的製鞋師」了解人體的整個身體的重心,都落於足部腳弓的鉛錘線。

看見賈克梅蒂(Alberto Giacometti)青銅雕像《Capsizing Man》所展現的脆弱的面向,我與這位藝術家的感想頗有共鳴:「生物極為脆弱,看起來很像他們為了持續站立,用盡體內僅剩的體力。」

Caption Left: red patent-leather pump based on the shoe created by Salvatore Ferragamo in the Fifties for Marilyn Monroe.

Right: the last created by Salvatore Ferragamo for Marilyn Monroe’s foot. The marks are evidence of the many different shoes designed for the Hollywood star.
Credit Photo credits: Arrigo Coppitz

The “shoemaker to the stars” understood that the entire weight of the body falls in a plumb line on the arch of the foot.

Looking at the fragility of Alberto Giacometti’s bronze figure of the Capsizing Man, I shared the artist’s impression of “the frailty of living beings, as if at any moment it took a formidable amount of energy for them to remain standing.”

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圖說:左, Philippe Petit 走在紐約世界貿易中心兩座大樓之間的鋼索上,紐約,1974
照片出處:Bill Stahl Jr./紐約每日新聞,透過Getty Images
圖說:右, La Funambule (1943),賈克梅蒂(Alberto Giacometti)
照片出處:New York, Yoshii Gallery

Caption Left: Philippe Petit walking the wire between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, New York, 1974
CreditBill Stahl Jr./NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images
Caption Right: La Funambule (1943), by Alberto Giacometti
Credit New York, Yoshii Gallery

polimodaFerragamo鞋楦與模具陳列展示

在我之前的文章中,我曾經批評有些時尚品牌設計出如此荒謬的高跟鞋,問女人們為什麼要為了美而忍耐這樣的不適。

展覽的策展者讓我了解,要打造出自然的「平衡狀態」的鞋子有多麼困難 – 必須顧及牽動整個骨骼的肌肉與掌控身體的神經。

A display of Ferragamo lasts and foot moulds

In my previous post, I wrote about some of the absurdities of high-heeled fashion and asked why women were prepared to suffer to be “beautiful”.

The curators of the exhibition made me understand how difficult it is to create in footwear the “equilibrium” bestowed by nature – the muscles that move the skeleton and the neurons that control the anatomy.

polimoda圖說:瑪莎‧葛萊姆的現代舞演出,1943

照片出處:Gjon Mili//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

但是這場展覽所提供的科學資訊,卻和一款輕盈的皮質宮廷鞋一樣輕盈。如果想更進一步了解這些數據,可以研讀展覽的導覽冊,以及書內精緻規劃的歷史回顧。

Caption A modern dance performance by Martha Graham, 1943

Credit Photo credit: Gjon Mili//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

But the scientific side of the exhibition is as light as a pair of fine leather court shoes. Those wanting to take the lesson further, can study the Equilibrium catalogue and its beautifully presented historical overview.

polimoda圖說:卡諾瓦(Antonio Canova)藝術品中的舞者與優雅的節奏感 (1799)

照片出處:Possagno, Museo e Gipsoteca Antonio Canova

圖文並茂的這本書,涵蓋卡諾瓦(Antonio Canova)作品中舞者的新古典風格的平衡感,還有她們的「優雅的節奏」,還有美國前衛舞蹈家康寧翰(Merce Cunningham),以及概念性藝術家阿布拉莫維奇(Marina Abramovic)以堅硬的紫水晶雕刻出的Shoes for Departure (1991年)。

Caption Antonio Canova’s  dancers and their rhythms of grace (1799)

Credit Possagno, Museo e Gipsoteca Antonio Canova

The fully illustrated book embraces the Neo-classical balance of Antonio Canova’s dancers and their “rhythms of grace”, the harsher visions of the distorted toes of American avant-garde dancer Merce Cunningham, and the implacably rigid carved amethyst Shoes for Departure (1991), by conceptual artist Marina Abramovic.

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圖說:康翰寧(Merce Cunningham)演出的 《滑稽可校的相遇Antic Meet》,攝影師Robert Rauschenberg,1958年。
照片出處:Photo by Richard Rutledge. Art © Estate of Robert Rauschenberg/Licensed by VAGA, New York
Caption Merce Cunningham in Antic Meet, photographed by Robert Rauschenberg in 1958.
Credit Photo by Richard Rutledge. Art © Estate of Robert Rauschenberg/Licensed by VAGA, New York

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圖說: Shoes for Departure (1991), 雕塑品,素材為紫水晶,雕塑家阿布拉諾維奇Marina Abramovic作品
照片出處:Paris, Collection Enrico Navarra.

我希望這場展覽有機會到其他地點巡迴展出,因為內容紮實,遠比單純展覽一堆鞋子的展覽更有意義 – 就如Salvatore本人,就是將藝術、科學和整體的智慧融入於他那謙卑的技藝中。

Caption Shoes for Departure (1991), in amethys tby Marina Abramovic
Credit Paris, Collection Enrico Navarra.

I hope this exhibition travels, because it is so much more meaningful than a mere display of footwear – just as Salvatore himself brought art, science and overall intelligence to his apparently humble craft.

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當然,對鞋子設計有興趣的同學們,也可以參考POLIMODA義大利服裝設計暨時尚管理學院的鞋子設計課程喔 !

(文章出處:Vogue Taiwan)

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